The world of work has changed since the 1970s

Australia's economy has changed, technology has changed the way we work (and look for work), there's an increased focus on formal qualifications, more jobs are part-time and/or short-term, and we're living longer and expected to work for longer.

See how things are different.

THEN

1970s

NOW

2017

Today service industries make up the bulk of the workforce

In 1970 the manufacturing industry employed the most people

5th December 1972

WHITLAM ELECTED

"It's time"

2nd July 2016

TURNBULL ELECTED

"Continuity & change"

The Economy

Australia's economy has changed, with a shift from production to service industries

Then

(1970)

Now

(2017)
100
75
50
25

Production vs
Service industries

as a % of employment

45% Production
55% Services
1.3:1

ratio of services to production industries in 1970

22% Production
78% Services
3.5:1

ratio of services to production industries in 2017 (was 1.3:1 in 1970)

Source: ABS

100
75
50
25

Top industries

by no. of people employed

23% Manufacturing
19% Wholesale & retail trade
17% Community services
8% Finance, property & business services
7% Construction
13% Wholesale & retail trade
13% Healthcare & social assistance
9% Construction
9% Professional, Scientific & Technical Services
8% Education & Training

Source: ABS

TOP SELLING CAR
COMPANY in 1970

HOLDEN

Source: Department of Employment

HOLDEN

AUSTRALIAN PRODUCTION
FACTORY CLOSES in 2017

Technology

Technology has changed the way we work...

Then

Now

more manual jobs
people on call
after hours
multiple
screens & devices
automation means fewer manual jobs
more workers
have qualifications

...and how we look for work

Then

 

Now

(2015)

#1 song

Suspicious Minds

Elvis Presley

#1 song

Look What You Made Me Do

Taylor Swift

People are living longer, and Australia’s workforce is becoming older.
By 2060, 50% of men & 40% of women aged 64 or older could be part of the workforce.

Source: Productivity Commission

Australians are living longer & working longer. Some estimate that by 2060 50% of men & 40% of women aged 64 or older will be in the workforce.

Source: Productivity Commission

51% union membership in 1970
15% union membership in 2017
31%

of children finished high school in 1971

ABS

84%

of children finished high school in 2016

ABS

Qualifications

There's an increased focus on
formal qualifications

People who didn’t finish high school school are more than twice as likely to be unemployed as those with a degree, diploma or certificate III or IV

Department of Employment

Then

(1971)

Now

(2016)
100
75
50
25
2% BACHELOR'S DEGREE OR HIGHER
20% TOTAL NON-SCHOOL QUALIFICATIONS*
26% BACHELOR'S DEGREE OR HIGHER
59% TOTAL NON-SCHOOL QUALIFICATIONS*

Source: ABS

* Non-school qualifications are those from institutions other than pre, primary, or secondary school.

Source: ABS

Many people do not work the "traditional" weekday 9-5 full-time job. Increasingly workers are in non-traditional employment in jobs that are part-time, overtime or shift work.

8%

of employed people work more than one job (2015)

The Conversation

Jobs

More jobs are part-time and/or short-term

Then

(1978)

most jobs were full time

Now

(2017)

rise in underemployment
& part-time work

30
20
10
2.3% UNDER
EMPLOYED

underemployment is when someone wants to work more hours than they currently do

13% PART TIME
8.8% UNDER
EMPLOYED
30% PART TIME

Percentage of workers in part-time jobs has more than doubled over the past 40 years

86%

of the jobs created over the last 12 months were part-time or casual

ABC

Source: ABS

Sources: ABS

23rd July 1970

M*A*S*H

Dir: Robert Altman

30th March 2017

The LEGO Batman Movie

Dir: Chris McKay

Life expectancy

We are living longer and
expected to work for longer

Australia is becoming too old to work and too young to retire. The proportion of people aged 65 and over is expected to grow from around 14% to almost 25% by 2050

Brotherhood of St Laurence

Then

(1971)

Now

(2015)
100
70
65
50
Pension age: 65
The planned pension age of 70 in 2035 is likely to be the highest in the developed world.

The Conversation

68.3 MEN
74.8 WOMEN
80.4 MEN
84.5 WOMEN

Source: ABS

Source: AIHW

It's clear the way Australia works has changed.
We need a system that works for everyone.